by Admin Admin

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Why Does My Tap Water Look Cloudy?

by Admin Admin

Why Does My Tap Water Look Cloudy?

Frequently house owners discover that their tap water is cloudy or milky as well as question if it's secure to consume. Exactly what creates cloudy drinking water and how can you enhance it? You can’t tell what exactly the cause of cloudy water is just by looking at it, so it is always a good idea to get your water tested regularly to make sure that there are no harmful pollutants in your water supply. The presence of metals, minerals, or bacteria may all be potential causes. Additionally, hard water might be causing the appearance of cloudy water and if this is the case a water softener can help to clear up and soften your water, which in turn will help to protect your pipes.

Cloudy or milky tap water can be a cause of concern in the home, although it is usually not a serious issue. In the UK, water quality is generally high due to the rigorous testing it undergoes, although there can be isolated issues that can affect neighborhoods or even individual households.

What Causes Cloudy Tap Water? Is it Safe to Drink? What are the Solutions? There are a few possible causes for cloudy or milky tap water, all of which require different solutions:

Trapped air in the pipework

The most common cause of cloudy water is aerated water. If there has been a change in pressure in the water supply network, for example, if a pipe has burst or local repair work is being carried out, air can become trapped in the water running through the pipes and expelled via the taps.

If the cloudy water is caused by trapped air, it will clear naturally in your glass within a minute. The cloudiness will clear from the bottom upwards as the tiny micro air bubbles rise to the top. If the water from a hot water tap is cloudy, you may be experiencing an issue with your boiler, and you should contact a plumber as soon as possible.

A good way to identify whether it is an issue with your household pipework or the wider supply network is to see if your neighbors are experiencing the same issue. If the problem is isolated to just your property, this is where you may need to contact a plumber or the local council to see if it is an issue with your household’s pipework.

If you believe aeration is the cause of your cloudy water, it means the water is perfectly safe to drink. If you find it unsightly, run the tap for a few seconds before filling up your glass to clear the trapped air. If the issue persists for a long time, check with your local water supplier to see if there is any ongoing repair work that may be affecting your area.

Particulate in the water supply

As water passes through the network, it may pick up some sediment or particulate such as sand, silt, or rock which doesn’t fully dissolve, leaving your water looking cloudy.

Unlike air bubbles, if the cloudy water is caused by particulate it will not clear easily and you may be able to spot the individual pieces of sediment if large enough.

Most particulate is harmless, with the main issue being it can cause water to look dirty. However, if you use a private water supply such as a borehole or well, and utilize a UV filter to sterilize the water, particulate can shield harmful bacteria from UV filtration, making you more susceptible to water-borne illnesses.

If you are concerned about the amount of particulate in your water supply, you may want to consider a mechanical water filtration system. A good example of this would be a water filter housing with a specialist drop-in sediment filter.

A build-up of trapped air in your water pipes can cause water to become carbonated and look cloudy, however, this is harmless. Your water pipes may be contaminated with small particles such as rock, stone, sand, or dirt. In which case you should contact a certified plumber for a treatment consultation.

Drinking a refreshing cold glass of water is a great feeling, but what if when you opened your tap, a cloud bubble flowed into your glass? The first thing you should do is set it aside, wait for a few minutes and you should see the bubbles rise to the surface and clear up. Cloudy tap water, sometimes referred to as milky or white water is likely due to trapped air or a build-up of dissolved particles in the water pipes. It is important to note that cloudy water from the tap is completely harmless.

Hard Water

If you live in a hard water area (you can check here), you may experience limescale build-up in your pipes or appliances, which may, in turn, cause your water to appear cloudy.

Because limescale is formed when hard water is agitated through heating, these chalky white deposits are usually found after boiling water in a kettle, although it can also form inside taps and pipework connected to the boiler or water heaters.

Although there are no health issues associated with consuming cloudy water caused by hard water, the discoloration in water-based drinks can be less appealing, especially if chalky deposits build up on taps and other appliances.

Hard water is caused by a large number of certain mineral content, there are a few different ways you can remove the number of minerals that cause hard water and cloudy water including water filters with polyphosphate scale inhibitors; water softeners, and calcium treatment units.

What Causes My Water To Look Cloudy?

Cloudy tap water tends to be short-lived. As tap water is fed through plumbing brought in from outside your home, the water distribution system could get damaged in winter, due to an accident or a faulty plumbing fitting. This can lead to a rupture in the wall allowing air into the plumbing system. This air can become pressurized, leading to many microbubbles being trapped in your plumbing and your water, making it appear cloudy.

Is Cloudy Water Safe To Drink or Use?

If you are unable to immediately contact a plumber or your water supplier, fear not as the water is safe to drink, possesses no health risk, and should eventually clear. Bathing, consuming, and washing are safe and encouraged.

What Should You Do?

Air Bubbles

Air bubbles can sometimes be the cause of the cloudy water appearance, and air bubbles are rarely a big concern. You may see higher levels of air bubbles in your faucet water if:

You've had recent plumbing work and air has become trapped in your lines.

Issues with city water distribution lines allow more air in than usual.

You leak your plumbing lines.

To determine if the cloudiness you see in your water is simply due to air bubbles, allow a clear glass of water to sit momentarily to see if the cloudiness dissipates. SF Gate offers a good guide to flushing air from your plumbing lines, but if this doesn't resolve the problem, you may need to call a plumber for help.

High TSS Concentrations

TSS refers to Total Suspended Solids, which are defined as suspended particles in water that do not dissolve. High TSS concentrations can cause you to have cloudy water. The particles can be so tiny that they are difficult to see, but a large collection of them will change the clarity of the water.

High TSS concentrations are most often due to hard water issues, which means the TTS particles in your water are likely minerals like calcium and magnesium. Hard water, of course, can cause a lot of problems with your plumbing, be hard on your skin, and generate problems with your water-related appliances.

Methane Gas

One of the lesser-common culprits behind white or cloudy water is methane gas, even though methane gas is an issue that most people never speculate could be causing odd water-related issues. A few telltale signs that you have methane gas in your water supply include water that has a lot of air bubbles or water that spits and sputters when you turn on the faucet.

Methane gas tends to be an issue only for homeowners who rely on well water. The gas occurs naturally and is hard to detect because the gas has no color, odor, or taste. It sounds scary to have methane gas in your water supply, but to a certain extent, the gas will not harm. Concentrations of methane gas that are below 10 mg/L are considered safe.

A plumber can help you perform tests on your water to determine how much methane is in it. If concentrations are high, proactive measures should be taken to get rid of some of the gas. For example, you can install a vented well cap or an aeration system for the good system so that some of the gas will be expelled from your water supply.

If you notice the water appears to be cloudy, milky, or even white, let it stand for a minute to see if there are any air bubbles.

Air bubbles clearing from the bottom means that air is trapped in your system and needs to be flushed out. Run the taps to help flush the cloudy water through and repeat the above to confirm whether your pipes have been completely flushed.

Air bubbles clearing from the top means that your pipes may be contaminated with small particles such as rock, stone, sand, or dirt. A treatment consultation with a certified plumber will be required.

If you can see the cloudiness when your cold-water tap is running or it has been more than 24 hours and your water appears to be white, cloudy, or milky, you should contact your water supplier and request they visit your home to check for a leak in your water line. Once the leak in the pipe has been repaired, the cloudiness will disappear and your water should run clear.

Discover More

Check out the sellsinbulk online store for more information about water treatment and keeping your water safe and clean from contaminations.

How to Find Your Refrigerator Water Filter's Location?

by Admin Admin

How to Find Your Refrigerator Water Filter's Location?

Your fridge water filter is something that many individuals do not consider. Your refrigerator could not also give water, only ice, however, the filter does require periodically to be changed. Modern fridges have a helpful light that will notify you when the water filter’s time is up, and we all find when the little black flecks appear in the ice and water. However, changing your refrigerator’s water filter includes one final challenge: Locating the filter location. Refrigerators tend to tuck the water filter somewhere accessible but out of the way. Most often, your fridge’s water filter is in the upper right-hand corner of the fridge compartment, near the back. 

Wherever that might be on your model of fridge. And if it’s not there, it might be behind the grille on the floor, often on the left-hand side. Unfortunately, every fridge model is different and each door style of the fridge has a different set of standard locations. This article will break down each fridge style and the best places to look for the water filter. If you have a refrigerator with a water dispenser, you can be pretty sure it has a filter built-in. 

You probably know you should replace the filter at some point, but like many people, you may wonder why you should bother replacing it, how often you should replace it and how to remove the filter. There's no reason to put off replacing a water filter when the process is so simple.

What the Water Filter Looks Like

Water filters are almost universally long cylinders with rounded bottoms and a smaller capped top. Your fridge will use a specific brand and model of water filter, with available off-brand options. You can look up the model online or you can simply find the old water filter and buy an identical replacement.

When searching for the water filter location, look for housing and a cylindrical slot. In the fridge compartment, it is oblong or corner-based housing. Behind the grille, it is a circular space with an old water filter slotted inside.

Water Filter Locations by Refrigerator Type

Look for your water filter based on the shape of your fridge. The location and size of your fridge compartments will determine where the water filter might be. Check out your fridge shape from the list and we’ll point you to the best places to look for the water filter. Here are all the places in a collected list:

Look for your water filter based on the shape of your fridge. The location and size of your fridge compartments will determine where the water filter might be. Check out your fridge shape from the list and we’ll point you to the best places to look for the water filter. Here are all the places in a collected list:

Top Right: upper right corner of the refrigerator compartment

Top Left: upper left corner of the refrigerator compartment

Left Lower Grille: behind the kick-grill under the fridge, on the left-hand side

Bottom Center: in the center bottom of the fridge compartment between the drawers

Top-Freezer Refrigerator

Filter Location: Top Right or Left Lower Grille

The top freezer is the traditional fridge shape. It has a large single-door fridge compartment with a smaller freezer on top. It has two doors.

Open the fridge compartment door and look to the top right corner. If you see housing there, look for a tab or clamp to get it open. Inside should be the water filter. Most water filters remove with a push-and-twist or the press of a button. If there is no housing in the top-right corner, remove the kick-grille underneath the fridge compartment. Inside you should see a circular space and a water filter. Remove the old water filter and insert the new one. Make sure it clicks in.

Bottom-Freezer Refrigerator

Filter Location: Top Right, Top Left, or Left Lower Grille

The bottom-freezer fridge is a common variant of the standard model. The freezer opens like a drawer with basket racks for safer frozen stacking. It has two doors.

Open the upper fridge compartment and check the upper-right-hand corner. If there is a plastic compartment there, open it and find the water filter inside. Replace that filter with the exact match or an accepted equivalent.

Next, check the grille underneath the freezer compartment. It should come loose easily. Behind the grille will be fridge components, including a round slot for the water filter. Replace the water filter that you find.

Water Filter Location in French 3-Door Refrigerator

Filter Location: Bottom Center, Top Right, or Top Left

The French 3-Door fridge has a bottom freezer compartment and an upper fridge that opens from two doors at the center. They are sometimes wider than 2-door fridges. Open both the fridge compartment doors, then look down into the center, near the bottom of the compartment. Between the produce drawers, you will see a round handle which is the old water filter. Twist and pull the old water filter out and replace it with a duplicate.

If there is no center water filter, look to the upper-right corner of the fridge compartment. You may see housing there slightly larger than a water filter in or near the corner. Find a way to open the housing with a tab or clamp and replace the water filter inside.

The filter might alternately be in the top-left corner of the fridge compartment. Check for housing and replace the water filter if you find it to the left.

Side-by-Side French Door Refrigerator

Filter Location: Top Right or Left Lower Grille

Side-by-Side fridges are all-vertical. They usually have the freezer in the left vertical-half and the fridge in the right vertical-half. Often, these compartments are close to the same size or identical.

This type of fridge adheres to the two standard places to build a water filter. Start by looking in the upper-right corner for housing that could hold a water filter cylinder. If you find housing, find the release catch and then exchange the water filter inside.

If it’s not in the fridge compartment, the filter is likely in your lower grille. Take off the kick-guard grill and find the round compartment where the water filter resides. Push and twist to release the water filter and make sure the new one clicks in.

Under-Counter Refrigerator

Filter Location: Left Lower Grille

Finally, there are short fridges that go under the counter. These don’t have enough fridge-compartment space for an internal water filter, so it’s almost always under the grill near the floor. Pry off the grill and look for the water-filter-shaped space in the components beneath. Replace with a matching water filter and close the grill behind you.

Once you find your water filter, you’ll need to replace it with an identical or very similar one. Then press the water filter light’s button to reset it for the next water filter alert. Contact us today for more clues on how to maintain and repair your appliances。

When to Replace Your Filter

Refrigerator water filters should be replaced every six months, when the filter notification light turns on or when the water starts to taste or smell noticeably different. The change in smell and odor occurs because the filter is full of contaminants and can no longer work effectively, leaving you with water that's essentially the same as tap water. Neglecting to change your filter for too long will not only leave you with inferior tasting water, but the mineral deposits from the unfiltered water could even damage your refrigerator's water system.

In some areas, the water filter may be exhausted in far less time than six months; however, it may work much longer than six months in locations with notably clean tap water. Even so, six months is an easy-to-remember time frame for changing the filter, especially since you might not notice a change in the water's taste if it occurs gradually over six months or more.

Finding Your Water Filter

Most water filters are located in the grille at the bottom of the refrigerator or the back, upper-right corner of the inside of the refrigerator. Some models, usually older ones, have the filter on the outside in the back of the refrigerator on the water supply line. The best way to find your filter is to look at the inside corner of your refrigerator and the grille at the bottom. The filter will look like a round tube, about 3 to 4 inches wide. If you don't see the filter in one of these two areas, you might want to check your owner's manual or look up the model number online to find out the exact location before pulling the unit away from the wall to look at the back of the refrigerator.

Replacing the Water Filter

If the removal process for your specific water filter doesn't seem immediately obvious, you may want to consult your user manual or look your model number up online to find out how to remove the filter. That being said, there are three general removal methods for taking out a water filter : push in, twist in, and inline: Push-in filters can be removed by pushing the "eject" button or twisting off the filter cap. To install the new filter, line up the arrows, snap it into place by turning the filter clockwise, and then push it in until the eject button pops.

Twist-in filters can be replaced by twisting the old cartridge out, removing the cap, putting the cap on the new filter, and twisting the new unit in.

Inline filters are those found on the back of the refrigerator, hooked up to the incoming water supply line. Some units will be easy to remove and simply twist out like the twist-in filters, while others are more difficult to replace as they require cutting a portion of the tubing. As a result, you may want to work with a professional to replace these filters.

Whatever sort of filter you have, it's a great suggestion to list the make as well version number from your old filter before throwing it away so you can obtain the right replacement if you haven't already bought a new one.

 After changing the filter, remember to run a gallon of water through the unit to clear carbon residue from the filter. When that's done, your filter is prepared to go.

8 signs your tap water might be dangerous to drink

by Admin Admin

Tap water unsafe

Cloudy water may be a sign of unsafe contaminants. 

When residents of Flint, Michigan, turned on their taps back in 2014, they encountered an unpleasant brown sludge that tasted like metal. The discolored liquid was an early sign that something was amiss with the city's water supply, which had recently been switched from the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department to the Flint River. 

The new water source had corroded the city's aging pipes, allowing toxic levels of lead to seep into residents' drinking water. What followed was one of the worst health disasters in US history, wherein around 10,000 residents were effectively poisoned in their own homes. 

The crisis, though an extreme example of water contamination, wasn't a one-off occurrence. Every year, millions of Americans get their drinking water from a source that violates the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The best way to tell exactly what's in our water is to have it professionally tested, but there are a few ways to screen for contaminants using our senses. 

Here are some signs that your tap water might not be safe to drink. 

A good rule of thumb is to check for cloudiness.

water cloudy

Water that's safe to drink should ideally be clear with no odor or funny taste. One way to tell if water is contaminated is to look for turbidity, or cloudiness. While cloudy water isn't necessarily dangerous to your health, it could signal the presence of unsafe pathogens or chemicals. 

Also check to see if your hands feel slimy after washing them with soap and water.

washing hands

When Flint residents first detected signs that their drinking water was contaminated, they noticed it was "harder" than the water they usually drank.

Hard water is often characterized by a buildup of substances like calcium or magnesium, which can leave deposits on your sink, faucet, or drinking glass. It might also be the reason why your hands feel slimy after washing them with soap and water, or you have to use more laundry detergent to clean your clothes. 

Hard water isn't a sure-fire sign that your water source is contaminated —  in some cases, it's caused by an excess of calcium or magnesium, which shouldn't pose any harm — but it might be an indicator of metals like aluminium, manganese, and lead.

Yellow, orange, or brown water is never a good sign.

dirty tap water

Yellow water could signal the presence of chromium-6, the cancer-causing chemical that resulted in a lawsuit filed by clean water advocate Erin Brockovich. It might also be a sign of a buildup of iron, manganese, copper, or lead. If your water comes from a public system, check to see whether the yellow tint only appears while running cold water, which could be a sign that your utility is simply clearing out its pipes. 

Water that's orange or brown could also contain excess iron, manganese, or lead, or signal the presence of rust, which can breed bacteria. 

Water tinged with green or blue could contain elevated levels of copper.

copper pipe

Blue or green water is often a sign of elevated levels of copper caused by corroded pipes. Though copper isn't bad for you in small doses, high levels of exposure can produce health problems such as anemia and liver and kidney damage.

If your water smells like bleach, be wary of excess chlorine.

laundry bleach

Chlorine is deliberately added to the US water supply to kill germs and pathogens, but when it mixes with other organic compounds it can create a few harmful byproducts.

One of these byproducts, a group of chemicals known as trihalomethanes (THMs), has been linked to kidney problems and increased cancer risk. Another, known as haloacetic acids (HAAs), causes skin irritation and could also increase cancer risk.

Low levels of chlorine in the water system can also expose people to a parasite called giardia that causes diarrhea, cramps, and nausea.

Water that smells like bleach could be a sign of excess chlorine in your local system. 

The smell of rotten eggs means your water could contain hydrogen sulfide.


Water that smells like sewage or rotten eggs could contain hydrogen sulfide, a colorless gas that can naturally occur in groundwater. When this gas is exposed to certain bacteria, it converts into sulfate, which can cause dehydration or diarrhea. 

If water smells fishy, it could be a sign of barium or cadmium.

junkyard car

Fishy-smelling water could signal an excess of barium, a naturally-occurring chemical that can seep into a water supply through drilling or manufacturing. When barium is present above the EPA's recommended levels, it could cause increased blood pressure, muscle weakness, or kidney, liver, and heart damage.

Water that smells fishy might also contain cadmium, a chemical found in lead and copper ores, which often leaches into pipes through industrial waste. Exposure to elevated levels of cadmium in drinking water can cause kidney, liver, and bone damage. 

One helpful way to check if your water is safe is to pour a glass from the tap and move to another room. After swirling the water around, if it still smells like fish, it could mean that contaminants are present.

A metallic taste could signal the presence of excess iron or copper.

iron faucet

Rusty pipes can release metals like iron, manganese, zinc, copper, and lead into local water supplies, giving the liquid a metallic, or salty, taste. This foul flavor helped alert Flint residents to the presence of lead in their drinking water, but in some cases it's merely a sign of a low pH. 

Other contaminants are invisible.

water testing flint

A number of contaminants, including arsenic and nitrates, are hidden to the naked eye. In many cases, a single drinking water system will contain more than one hazardous chemical, making it difficult for individuals to evaluate the overall health risk. 

"We're never exposed to just one agent," said Jamie DeWitt, an associate toxicology professor at East Carolina University.

DeWitt said even a reverse osmosis system — the one recommended by Erin Brockovich — can trap contaminated water in its filters. Though she uses a filtration system in her own home, she said it's mostly to remove the bad taste of chlorination byproducts.

Her main advice is to know your water source and read water quality reports from your local utility — even before you smell, taste, or see something bad.

How the Water Being Processed in Water Treatment Plant?

by Admin Admin

Programmable Logic Controllers

Devices acknowledged as programmable common sense controllers (PLCs) that are networked collectively with different PLCs manipulate the water remedy plant and the cure processes. The PLCs tune over 1,500 alerts or statistics factors to make sure optimized treatment. The laptop alerts and statistics are accumulated through the Supervisory Collection and Data Acquisition (SCADA) gadget and furnish records to the Operator on shift on every occasion any object requires Operator intervention.

Water taken without delay out of the river is now not secure to drink due to bacterial and parasitic conditions. It would likely make a man or woman ailing from consuming pathogenic microorganism and parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The water to be handled is pumped out of the river and is piped underground into our uncooked water settling pond.

Raw Water Settling Pond

The uncooked water-settling pond holds the water diverted from the river for a couple of purposes. The foremost reason for the uncooked water-settling pond is to enable plenty of the sand and particles to naturally settle out of the water earlier than it is pumped to the water therapy plant. Secondarily, the pond approves for some ability in the tournament that the river water is muddy. The pump station on the river can be shut down and the plant can use the ponds’ water for furnish till the river water is clearer or protected to use again. Also, if something has been to occur to the underground piping from the pump station on the river to the pond, the water in the pond can be handled till the hassle is fixed. A 2d pump station lifts the water to the water therapy plant headworks. A backup pump station that is furnished water from the Hydraulic Ditch can be used in the tournament that the pump station on the river is out of carrier due to problems whether or not they are electrical or mechanical. However, this water is pumped without delay to the water therapy plant headworks by-passing the settling pond hence dropping the advantage of settling the heavy sand, grit, and debris.


The Pre-Sedimentation Building is the place the therapy procedure begins. The uncooked water from the settling pond is lifted 240 toes to the water cure plant. The uncooked water is delivered to the headworks of the water cure plant where the first of 5 primary unit water cure strategies begin the cure to make the water secure to drink. The 5 predominant unit methods consist of chemical coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection (described below). There are chemical substances delivered to the water as it enters quite a several cure processes.

Step 1 Chemical Coagulation

The first chemical delivered is chlorine dioxide and it is an oxidant used to wreck down naturally going on natural counts such as decaying leaves and different plant material. A chemical coagulant recognized as aluminum sulfate is used as the main coagulant. A polymer, a lengthy chain of artificial natural compounds, is additionally delivered to the water as a coagulant useful resource to assist in strengthening the important coagulant’s binding chains. The coagulants are delivered at the fast combine unit; this is a unit that creates turbulent mixing energies to assist utterly disperse the chemical coagulants into the uncooked water and to start the coagulation process. The coagulants that purpose very nice particles to clump collectively into large particles that can then be eliminated later in the remedy method through settling, skimming, draining, filtering.

Step 2 Flocculation

The coagulated water then flows to the next principal unit process, the flocculation process. Flocculation is a gradual stirring technique that motives the small coagulated particles to structure floc. The flocculation manner promotes contact between the floc particles and the particulates (sediment) in the water. Generally, these contacts or collisions between particles result from mild stirring created by using a mechanical or hydraulic capacity of mixing. There are two units of flocculation basins that incorporate mechanical mixing paddles that the water passes via to gently stir the coagulated water. The floc shape creates a floor in which the particulates in the water adsorb (adhere) to the floor of the floc hence forming large settleable particles for ease of elimination via sedimentation and filtration.

Step 3 Sedimentation

The flocculated water then flows to the subsequent main unit process, the sedimentation process. The cause of the sedimentation method is to put off suspended solids (particles) that are denser (heavier) than water and to limit the particulate load on the filters. Sedimentation is executed usingreducing the pace of the water being handled under the factor the place it can transport settleable suspended material, hence permitting gravitational forces to eliminate particles held in suspension. When water is nearly nonetheless in sedimentation basins, settleable solids will pass towards the backside of the basin. This system of sedimentation eliminates nearly ninety percentage of the solids in the water. The clearer water on the floor is amassed in the launder tubes that direct the water to the filter gallery to take away the closing ten percentage of solids.

Step 4 Disinfection

The settled water then flows from the Pre-Sedimentation Building to the Filtration Facility. Before arriving at the Filtration Facility chlorine is introduced to the water at the pre-chlorination factor to start the disinfection process. The disinfection system is designed to kill or inactivate most microorganisms in water, which includes truly all pathogenic organisms whether or not they are from bacteria, viruses, intestinal parasites. Pathogenic organisms are the microscopic bugs in the water that can reason waterborne ailments such as gastroenteritis, typhoid, dysentery, cholera, and giardiasis.

Step 5 Filtration

The chlorinated settled water then flows into the Filtration Facility and onto the filters for the final of the fundamental unit techniques used to deal with the consuming water. Filtration is the procedure of passing the water via fabric such as a mattress of coal, sand, or different granular substance to do away with particulate impurities that have been no longer eliminated in the course of the sedimentation process. The water remedy plant makes use of fast price multi-media gravity filter beds. The filters are comprised of a pinnacle layer of anthracite, a center layer of filter sand and then a backside layer of garnet sand, one an underdrain machine that collects the filtered water. The water enters on the pinnacle of the filter media and passes down thru the filter beds through gravity. The one-of-a-kind substances work as a large strainer and entice ultimate particulates. When the filters begin to get packed full of particles, the operators smooth them the usage of a process referred to as backwashing. Potable water is run backward thru the filters releasing the entrapped particulates that are amassed in drain troughs. The backwash water is despatched to the Backwash Recovery Pond and, after a settling process, the backwash water is again to the uncooked water settling pond for re-use.

Chlorine & Fluoride

The water that is accumulated from the backside of the filters is then regarded as potable. Before the water leaves the clear wells underneath the water remedy plant chlorine is introduced a 2nd time for post-disinfection. The extra chlorine ensures that the water stays secure to drink even at the furthest reaches of the distribution system. In addition to the chlorine, fluoride is introduced to our ingesting water at the plant. When fluoridated water is drunk all through the years of teeth development, the fluoride strengthens teeth and prevents teeth decay. The United States Public Health Service has decided the most desirable awareness for fluoride in United States water to be in the vary of 0.7 to 1.2 components per million. Dissolved fluoride-containing minerals are measured year-round in the water of the Arkansas River. The herbal fluoride content material of the river water averages .4 phase per million. The water therapy flora adequate fluoride to increase that degree to .9 components per million. The fluoride degree is measured each day at the water therapy plant and month-to-month at the faucet to make certain it is adequate to meet the attention advocated by using the United States Public Health Service (USPHS).

The Process Laboratory

The water therapy plant has a manner laboratory to make certain that the water therapy methods are optimized and that the water is protected to drink. The water is examined every day for several parameters by using our water plant operators and by way of non-stop online monitoring through method instrumentation. Some of the water satisfactory parameters monitored and examined for are chlorine, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and pH. Values for parameters of the dealt with water exchange with the time of year. Current values can be bought by way of contacting the Water Treatment Plant.

Commercially Bottled Water

by Admin Admin

Americans spend billions of dollars every year on commercially bottled water. People choose bottled water for a variety of reasons including taste, convenience, as a substitute for other beverages, or because of perceived health benefits.

Bottled Water Regulation

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the safety of bottled water and bases its standards on the EPA standards for tap water. If these standards are met, water is considered safe for most healthy individuals. The bottled water industry must also follow FDA’s good manufacturing practices for processing and bottling drinking water.

Read the label on your bottled water to learn where the water comes from and how it has been treated to make it safe for drinking.

While there is currently no standardized label for bottled water, labels may tell you about the way the water is treated. Check the label for a toll-free number or web page address of the company that bottled the water to learn more.

Bottled Water and People with Weakened Immune Systems

People with weakened immune systems, such as people with HIV, diabetes, organ transplants or going through chemotherapy, should take special precautions with the water they drink. The parasite Cryptosporidium can cause chronic or severe illness and even life-threatening symptoms in people with weakened immune systems. Healthy people would be more likely to develop a mild illness from this parasite.

Look for the following types of treatments for bottled water that protect against Cryptosporidium:

  • Reverse osmosis
  • Distillation
  • Filtration with an absolute 1micron filter

Bottled Water and Outbreaks

Although illness outbreaks associated with bottled water are rarely reported, they do occur. It is important for bottled water manufacturers, distributors, and consumers to do these things:

  • Protect and properly treat water before bottling
  • Maintain good manufacturing processes
  • Protect bottled water during shipping and storage
  • Prevent contamination after consumers purchase bottled water

Contaminated bottled water can harm your health, including causing gastrointestinal illness, reproductive problems, and neurological disorders. Infants, young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems may be more likely to get sick from some contaminants.

How Replace the Water Filter in Your Samsung Refrigerator

by Admin Admin

You need a clean water filter to get fresh, clean, filtered water. We recommend that you replace the water filter at least every six months. The refrigerator's water filter light will let you know when those six months are up and should be reset after changing the filter.

Note: Only use Samsung Genuine Filters that are designed to work with your Samsung refrigerator. You can purchase them directly on our website.

Determine which water filter you need

There are three types of Samsung water filters, so you’ll want to make sure you're choosing the correct one for your fridge. Replacement filters can be purchased on our product page

First, locate the filter in your fridge model. The location will vary depending on your model, so please check your user manual if you’re unsure. Then, check the model number on the filter itself. This will let you know which of the following filter types you’ll need to purchase.




Replace the water filter

Replacing your water filter is simple and should only take a few minutes. If you’re unsure about whether you need to replace the filter, check the indicator light on your fridge. For instance, when the filter is new, the light may be blue, yellow, or green, depending on your fridge model. 

When it's almost time to change the filter, the light will be purple. After 6 months, the light will turn red. At this time, you should change the filter right away. 

DA97-17376B and DA29-00020B filters:

  1. First, turn off the water supply and then locate the filter. If you are unsure where it is, please consult your user manual.
  2. Open the water filter cover and then rotate the old filter counterclockwise to unlock it.
  3. Then, pull it straight out to remove it from the filter housing.
  4. To insert the new filter, first remove the protection cap from the top of the filter. Then, push it straight into the filter housing and turn it clockwise.
  5. Make sure the lock symbol matches up with the indicator line.

DA29-00003G filters:

First, turn off the water supply and then locate the filter. If you are unsure where it is, please consult your user manual.

  1. To remove the old filter, twist it to the left. This will unlock it.
  2. Then, pull it down to remove it from the filter housing.
  3. To insert the new filter, push it up into the filter housing and then turn it to the right.
  4. Make sure the notch at the top of the filter is matched up with the arrow on the filter housing.
  5. After replacing your filter, dispense a few gallons of water to flush out any impurities or air. Then, make sure to reset the water filter light on your fridge. Please see the next sections for more information.

Reset the water filter light

The water filter light on your fridge operates on a timer and will turn on after 6 months. For models where the indicator is always lit, it will turn red after 6 months.

Depending on the quality of the water in your area and the amount of water you dispense, you may want to change the filter more or less frequently than the light suggests. To determine if a new filter is needed, dispense water first with the filter installed and then with the filter removed. If the speed the water dispenses at is significantly different, you should replace the filter whether the indicator is lit or not.

You can use the following steps to reset the filter light:

  1. Find the Filter Reset button on the control panel, if it's available. It is sometimes the secondary function of another button on the panel.
  2. Once located, touch and hold the correct button for 3 seconds until the light resets.
  3. The filter icon will either turn off or change back to its normal color when it's reset. This starts the 6 month timer over again.

Note: Some models may require two buttons to be touched simultaneously to reset the light. Touch screen models will use on-screen menus instead. For instructions specific to your refrigerator, see your user manual.

7 Reasons Why You Should Start a Dropshipping Business

by Admin Admin

The modern instances have witnessed a burst in on-line business. A lot of human beings desire to begin a dropshipping commercial enterprise as a facet hustle to earn some more money.
The largest spotlight of this enterprise sample is that you don’t have to personal inventory and maintain inventory. It is essentially a low-risk commercial enterprise alternative that can supply you returns barring the headache of investing in inventory and renting out warehouses.

Basically, the way of how dropshipping works is simple,

You personal a internet site the place you promote the merchandise of a supplier/manufacturer.
As and when you get hold of orders from clients you ahead them to the provider and they fulfill it.
The distinction between what the dealer costs you for the product and what you consignment to the patron is your profit.

However, eye-catching the dropshipping commercial enterprise mannequin may also sound, you must be aware of that it is no longer that simple. It takes tough work in being capable to effectively make sales.

It isn’t indispensable to stick to promoting dropshipped merchandise on your internet site alone. If you have a product vary of your own, you can even sell these merchandise alongside with the ones that are dropshipped. It is simply that your clients will get a wider range to pick from.

Top Reasons To Start A Dropshipping Business
Now, you be aware of how the dropshipping enterprise mannequin works and how profitable it is. In case you are nonetheless no longer satisfied about getting started, right here are some legitimate motives to begin a dropshipping business.

1. Low investment

You want to confess! To begin any business, you want money. Reports say that most organizations don’t be successful due to a lack of funds. Now, what if there is a commercial enterprise mannequin that entails very much less investment? Great, isn’t it? Dropshipping is one of them.

To start, all you want is a website, a laptop or smartphone, net connectivity, and a contact listing of wholesale dropshipping suppliers.

In addition, you want an ecommerce platform to construct your keep like Shopify, BigCommerce, WooCommerce, etc.

Considerably, the primary preliminary cost to begin a dropshipping enterprise is as decrease as $500.

2. No want to make investments in stock and have a warehouse

For any retail business, buying and stocking up stock is a big investment. You have to pay the lease of a warehouse and spend cash on its upkeep.

And, in case your income don’t select up, your inventory will honestly rot in the warehouse. Moreover, you have to endure the wages of the workforce that alternatives and packs your products. And it doesn’t give up here, you additionally have to pay for the shipping.

With dropshipping, there is no want to have an stock of products. It is the headache of your dealer or manufacturer. Instead of blocking off a huge chunk of cash in stock, you can use it in constructing your dropshipping business.

This mannequin has no notion of stock which shows that even if your enterprise is now not doing that well, you won’t lose much. Maybe the quantity spent on the internet site will be your important loss.

Another gain of this enterprise mannequin is that the adjustments in the tastes and preferences of clients will have minimal impact on you.

You can provide precisely what they prefer as there is no compulsion of pushing out your historical stock. This additionally lets you show a wider product vary to your customers.

You can even promote merchandise that are tough to save and perishable due to the fact you are now not the one storing them in warehouses!

Just make certain that you coordinate with the provider by way of apps to comprehend when the merchandise are probable to go out of stock. This way you won’t disappoint your customers.

You can usually ship in your very own labels to suppliers so that your clients will by no means come to comprehend that you are into dropshipping. There are many dropshipping providers out there that have truely awesome provides for you.

Also, as the product immediately receives shipped from the wholesale supplier, it is much less in all likelihood to get damaged.

Additionally, you don’t have to fear about stuff like organizing, tracking, labeling, picking, and packaging objects earlier than shipping. Third-party suppliers will take care of this.

Undoubtedly, there is no higher time to begin a dropshipping enterprise due to the fact you have a range of dropshipping apps these days.

You can get in contact with wholesale suppliers by using e-mail and the last work like downloading the photos, altering the fee of products, and monitoring orders can be executed from the app’s dashboard itself.

3. Many niches to select from

Your on-line save can be constructed round a unique market phase or niche. You can cater to the wishes of the smaller slice of pie and nonetheless see your commercial enterprise booming. This is relevant to each traditional and dropshipping stores.

When it comes to deciding on a niche for your dropshipping business, the sky is the limit. You have a number of niches to select from for your save however you need to first take a look at and discover out whether or not they are doable or not.

You want to search for the most famous niches that have been doing properly over a duration of time. The area of interest has to be a constant one that is so that you are no longer out of orders overnight!

If you take place to locate a hole in the market for a famous area of interest product, you should sincerely attempt to do some thing to fill that in with your products.

After the preliminary research, you will get an thought of the inputs that will be wished from your cease and you can begin a dropshipping business.

4. Opportunity to show extra products

As already said, with dropshipping there is no burden of stocking up gadgets with you at the warehouse. Therefore, you can effortlessly show a big decision of merchandise on your website.

Moreover, if the merchandise in your e-store appear no longer really worth selling, you can truely discard them. Even better, you can show a variety of merchandise from extraordinary manufacturers and song which are promoting better.

Whatever, the goal target audience is probably to decide upon can be put up. This way, clients will return to your internet site to see what new merchandise you have to offer.

They will sense valued when they locate what they have been searching for all along. Thus, you need to usually maintain checking the listing of trending products from time to time.

Tip – Start a dropshipping commercial enterprise with a few merchandise in the beginning and increase gradually.

5. Trending on line buying over old-fashioned Physical stores

Online buying is desired these days as human beings can get stuff delivered to their doorstep with the click on of a button. It saves each time and effort which are pretty treasured in this age.

As most human beings favor to purchase matters online, this offers you some other exact purpose to open your e-store. The dropshipping mannequin will work without a doubt nicely for you.

Moreover, the simple reality is that brick-and-mortar shops are now old-fashioned. Though a find out about suggests that 55% of on-line shoppers nevertheless choose buying from a retail store, the retail enterprise has taken a flip from bodily shops to the digital world.

Businesses have turned greater realistic and inclined to hold up with the trending competition; specifically at some point of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The factor is that no one desires to undergo the utility bills, workforce wages, inventory, and keep rent. This is why most retail corporations are going on line these days.

In addition to that, human beings are now shifting away from e-commerce giants like Amazon and eBay. They decide upon shopping for at once from the character shops instead.

This is needless to say outstanding information for you to begin a dropshipping business. It is a golden chance and you ought to absolutely grasp it.

Interestingly, it is anticipated that through 2023, eCommerce retail purchases will upward thrust from 14.1% to 22%.

6. Wider international reach

The common e-commerce stores normally want to get their merchandise sourced from wholesalers overseas that too in bulk amounts. They have to be saved in warehouses earlier than being marketed and sold.

This is a tedious job that includes a lot of time and money. You will additionally have to deal with banks, export-import agents, and many intermediaries.

With drop shipping, you don’t have to fear about importing merchandise and stocking them up in your warehouse. No rely where the client is located, the product can be at once shipped with the aid of the provider except you having to come in between.

This way you can attain out to clients all throughout the globe easily. You can market and promote merchandise to new purchaser bases in specific components of the world.

There are many suppliers who have their warehouses in extraordinary countries. You can get your orders fulfilled easily.

Statistics say that 58% of Canadians, 28% of Americans, 29% of Britons, and 67% of Irish residents buy items on-line from throughout the border. These can be magnificent markets for you too!

7. No boss overhead + Work flexibility

Being your very own boss with your dropshipping commercial enterprise is likely the largest appeal of getting rid of your monotonous 9 to 5 job. There is no worry of assembly the deadlines, accomplishing the targets, and having a boss to document to.

As you are thoroughly accountable for the output of your business, you are for sure extra probably to put in your best. The danger and income each are yours and you have to stability them right.

Moreover, it is definitely on you how to proceed with your format of action. Though you will give up up doing all the work your self and this may also sound like a con, however no longer having a boss on your head is a large relief! It lets you set your very own rules.

Another advantage is that you have a lot of work flexibility. In fact, you are free to work remotely.

You, your supplier, and your patron can be on exclusive continents altogether. And, with dropshipping business, this won’t be a problem. You can take care of the whole thing remotely except having to go around.

Basically, your commercial enterprise travels alongside with you so you don’t have to fear about your geographical location. You simply want your laptop/smartphone and an lively net connection to get the whole thing in place.

It offers you the chance to tour even whilst you are at work.

General Information about Lead in Drinking Water

by Admin Admin

How Lead Gets into Drinking Water

ead can enter drinking water when plumbing materials that contain lead corrode, especially where the water has high acidity or low mineral content that corrodes pipes and fixtures. The most common sources of lead in drinking water are lead pipes, faucets, and fixtures. In homes with lead pipes that connect the home to the water main, also known as lead services lines, these pipes are typically the most significant source of lead in the water.  Lead pipes are more likely to be found in older cities and homes built before 1986.  Among homes without lead service lines, the most common problem is with brass or chrome-plated brass faucets and plumbing with lead solder.

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) has reduced the maximum allowable lead content -- that is, content that is considered "lead-free" -- to be a weighted average of 0.25 percent calculated across the wetted surfaces of pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and fixtures and 0.2 percent for solder and flux.

Corrosion is a dissolving or wearing away of metal caused by a chemical reaction between water and your plumbing. A number of factors are involved in the extent to which lead enters the water, including:

  • the chemistry of the water (acidity and alkalinity) and the types and amounts of minerals in the water,
  • the amount of lead it comes into contact with,
  • the temperature of the water,
  • the amount of wear in the pipes,
  • how long the water stays in pipes, and
  • the presence of protective scales or coatings inside the plumbing materials.

To address corrosion of lead and copper into drinking water, EPA issued the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) under the authority of the SDWA. One requirement of the LCR is corrosion control treatment to prevent lead and copper from contaminating drinking water. Corrosion control treatment means utilities must make drinking water less corrosive to the materials it comes into contact with on its way to consumers' taps.

Health Effects of Exposures to Lead in Drinking Water

Is there a safe level of lead in drinking water?

The Safe Drinking Water Act requires EPA to determine the level of contaminants in drinking water at which no adverse health effects are likely to occur with an adequate margin of safety. These non-enforceable health goals, based solely on possible health risks, are called maximum contaminant level goals (MCLGs). EPA has set the maximum contaminant level goal for lead in drinking water at zero because lead is a toxic metal that can be harmful to human health even at low exposure levels. Lead is persistent, and it can bioaccumulate in the body over time.

Young children, infants, and fetuses are particularly vulnerable to lead because the physical and behavioral effects of lead occur at lower exposure levels in children than in adults. A dose of lead that would have little effect on an adult can have a significant effect on a child. In children, low levels of exposure have been linked to damage to the central and peripheral nervous system, learning disabilities, shorter stature, impaired hearing, and impaired formation and function of blood cells.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that public health actions be initiated when the level of lead in a child’s blood is 5 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL) or more.

It is important to recognize all the ways a child can be exposed to lead. Children are exposed to lead in paint, dust, soil, air, and food, as well as drinking water. If the level of lead in a child's blood is at or above the CDC action level of 5 micrograms per deciliter, it may be due to lead exposures from a combination of sources. EPA estimates that drinking water can make up 20 percent or more of a person’s total exposure to lead. Infants who consume mostly mixed formula can receive 40 percent to 60 percent of their exposure to lead from drinking water.


Even low levels of lead in the blood of children can result in:

  • Behavior and learning problems
  • Lower IQ and hyperactivity
  • Slowed growth
  • Hearing problems
  • Anemia

In rare cases, ingestion of lead can cause seizures, coma and even death.

Pregnant Women

Lead can accumulate in our bodies over time, where it is stored in bones along with calcium. During pregnancy, lead is released from bones as maternal calcium and is used to help form the bones of the fetus. This is particularly true if a woman does not have enough dietary calcium. Lead can also cross the placental barrier exposing the fetus to lead. This can result in serious effects to the mother and her developing fetus, including:

  • Reduced growth of the fetus
  • Premature birth

Find out more about lead's effects on pregnancy:

Lead can also be transmitted through breast milk. Read more on lead exposure in pregnancy and lactating women (PDF) (302 pp, 4.3 MB, About PDF.


Lead is also harmful to adults. Adults exposed to lead can suffer from:

  • Cardiovascular effects, increased blood pressure and incidence of hypertension
  • Decreased kidney function
  • Reproductive problems (in both men and women)

Can I shower in lead-contaminated water?

Yes. Bathing and showering should be safe for you and your children, even if the water contains lead over EPA’s action level. Human skin does not absorb lead in water.

This information applies to most situations and to a large majority of the population, but individual circumstances may vary. Some situations, such as cases involving highly corrosive water, may require additional recommendations or more stringent actions. Your local water authority is always your first source for testing and identifying lead contamination in your tap water. Many public water authorities have websites that include data on drinking water quality, including results of lead testing. Links to such data can be found on the EPA Consumer Confidence Report website.

What You Can Do

Find Out if Lead is in Your Drinking Water

First, learn more about the water coming into your home

EPA requires all community water systems to prepare and deliver an annual water quality report called a Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) for their customers by July 1 of each year. Contact your water utility if you'd like to receive a copy of their latest report. If your water comes from a household well or other private water supply, check with your health department, or with any nearby water utilities that use ground water, for information on contaminants of concern in your area.

Second, you can have your water tested for lead

Homes may have internal plumbing materials containing lead. Since you cannot see, taste, or smell lead dissolved in water, testing is the only sure way of telling whether there are harmful quantities of lead in your drinking water. A list of certified laboratories are available from your state or local drinking water authority. Testing costs between $20 and $100. Contact your water supplier as they may have useful information, including whether the service connector used in your home or area is made of lead.

Important Steps You Can Take to Reduce Lead in Drinking Water

  • Have your water tested. Contact your water utility to have your water tested and to learn more about the lead levels in your drinking water.
  • Learn if you have a lead service line. Contact your water utility or a licensed plumber to determine if the pipe that connects your home to the water main (called a service line) is made from lead.
  • Run your water. Before drinking, flush your home’s pipes by running the tap, taking a shower, doing laundry, or doing a load of dishes. The amount of time to run the water will depend on whether your home has a lead service line or not, and the length of the lead service line. Residents should contact their water utility for recommendations about flushing times in their community.
  • Learn about construction in your neighborhood. Be aware of any construction or maintenance work that could disturb your lead service line. Construction may cause more lead to be released from a lead service line.
  • Use cold water. Use only cold water for drinking, cooking and making baby formula. Remember, boiling water does not remove lead from water.
  • Clean your aerator. Regularly clean your faucet’s screen (also known as an aerator). Sediment, debris, and lead particles can collect in your aerator. If lead particles are caught in the aerator, lead can get into your water.
  • Use your filter properly. If you use a filter, make sure you use a filter certified to remove lead. Read the directions to learn how to properly install and use your cartridge and when to replace it. Using the cartridge after it has expired can make it less effective at removing lead. Do not run hot water through the filter.
Crop from: Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water

Consider how the filter fits your home, lifestyle, and budget - Choosing Home Water Filters & Other Water Treatment Systems

by Admin Admin

Many different types of filters are available to consumers. Determining which type is most appropriate for you—or whether you need a filter at all—depends on what functions you want a filter to provide. No filter eliminates all contaminants, so understanding what filters do and do not do is important.

What does the filter remove?

Read the label to see if it is NSF-certified.  If it is, you can search NSF’s databaseexternal icon to learn more about what a particular model is certified to protect you against. Labels on water filters also typically state the contaminants that are reduced, which can help to guide your choice. Be sure to read labels carefully yourself and verify the manufacturer’s claims with an independent source, as not all sales representatives will be familiar with your needs.

Keep in mind that most brands include many different types of filters. Sales people might be able to help you make an appropriate selection, but remember that they are sometimes paid to sell a particular brand. You should check claims and read the fine print on filter packaging for yourself and ensure that it will work for your purposes before purchasing.

Don’t assume that if the filter removes one contaminant, it also removes others. Filters that remove chemicals often do not effectively remove germs, and vice versa. Some water treatment devices that remove chemicals, such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, or distillation systems, might also remove fluoride. Children who drink water with levels of fluoride <0.6 ppm might need a fluoride supplement. Check with your child’s pediatrician or dentist for specific recommendations.

How much does the system cost?

The prices of different filtration systems can vary widely, from simple systems that can cost under $20 to complex systems costing hundreds of dollars and requiring professional installation. In addition to the price of purchasing and installing the system, consider the cost, schedule, and ease of maintenance, such as changing filter cartridges. In order to continue to work properly, all water treatment systems require maintenance.

How much filtered water do you need?

Some filters are slow, while others can filter large amounts of water quickly. If you only need the filter for personal drinking water, you may not need a fast filter.

What kind of system do you need, and how does it fit into your home?

Filters commonly found in homes and stores include water filter pitchers, end-of-tap or faucet-mounted filters, faucet-integrated (built-in) filters, on-counter filters, under-sink filters, and whole-house treatment units. No filters or treatment systems are 100% effective in removing all contaminants from water, and you need to know what you want your filter to do before you go shopping (see Step 1). Not all filters of a particular type use the same technology, so you should read the label carefully.

Water filter pitchers

Water filter pitchers are pitchers that are filled from the top and have built-in filters that water must pass through before being poured out for drinking or other use.

  • Pros: Inexpensive to purchase, no installation, easy to use
  • Cons: Vary by model and pore size, filters must be replaced regularly, slow filtering

Refrigerator filters

Many refrigerators have a built-in filter that supplies water through the door and supplies an automatic icemaker.

  • Pros: Come with many refrigerators, often improve water taste, may also filter water used for making ice, easy to use
  • Cons: Filters must be replaced regularly

Faucet-mounted filters

Faucet-mounted filtration systems attach to a standard faucet and can be switched on and off between filtered and unfiltered water flow.

  • Pros: Can easily switch between filtered and unfiltered water, relatively inexpensive
  • Cons: Do not work with all faucets, may slow water flow

Faucet-integrated (built-in) filters

Faucet-integrated filtration systems are faucets designed with built-in filters (instead of an attached filter, like a faucet-mounted system) and require installation.

  • Pros: Can easily switch between filtered and unfiltered water
  • Cons: Often expensive, require installation

On-counter filters

Faucet-integrated filtration systems are faucets designed with built-in filters (instead of an attached filter, like a faucet-mounted system) and require installation.

  • Pros: Can easily switch between filtered and unfiltered water
  • Cons: Often expensive, require installation

Under-sink filters

Under-sink filtration systems are installed under a sink and send water through a pipe to the filter’s own specially installed faucet.  

  • Pros: Filter large amounts of water, do not take up countertop space
  • Cons: Often expensive, may require modifications to plumbing

Whole-house water treatment

Whole-house water treatment devices treat all water entering the house, not just the water used for drinking. 

  • Pros: Treatment is applied to all water entering your home, which may be important for hard water and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
  • Cons: Often expensive, may require modifications to plumbing, may require professional maintenance, filtering that removes chlorine might increase growth of germs in all the pipes in your house

Treatment devices

This table shows some benefits and limitations of a few popular home water treatment technologies. It does not include information on all filter types including many those that might remove germs via simple pore size filtration. Also see Technical Information on Home Water Treatment Technologies.

Treatment Devices

Treatment DeviceWhat it Does to WaterTreatment Limitations
Activated Carbon Filter (includes mixed media that remove heavy metals)
  • Absorbs organic contaminants that acuse taste and odor problems.
  • Some designs remove chlorination byproducts
  • Some types remove cleaning solvents and pesticides
  • Is efficient in removing metals such as lead and copper
  • Does not remove nitrates, bacteria, or dissolved minerals
Ion Exchange Unit (with activated alumina)
  • Removes minerals, particularly calcium and magnesium that make water “hard”
  • Some designs remove radium and barium
  • Removes fluoride
If water has oxidized iron or iron bacteria, the ion-exchnage resin will become coated or clogged and lose its softening ability
Reverse Osmosis Unit (with carbon)
  • Removes nitrates, sodium, other dissolved inorganics and organic compounds
  • Removes foul tastes, smells or colors
  • May also reduce the level of some pesticides, dioxins, chloroform, and petrochemicals
Does not remove all inorganic and organic contaminants
Distillation Unit
  • Removes nitrates, bacteria, sodium, hardness, dissolved solids, most organic compounds, heavy metals, and radionucleides
  • Kills bacteria
  • Does not remove some volatile organic contaminants, certain pesticides, and volatile solvents
  • Bacteria may recolonize on the cooling coils during inactive periods

Cited from: Choosing Home Water Filters & Other Water Treatment Systems

Think About Why You’re Considering a Filter - Choosing Home Water Filters & Other Water Treatment Systems

by Admin Admin

These are some common reasons that people choose to use water filters. Knowing what you need or want from your water treatment system is an important first step to choosing the right system for you.

“I don’t like the way my water tastes.”

You might be surprised to learn that the main function of popular refrigerator and pitcher filters is to improve the taste of your water, and most don’t fully protect against germs and many other contaminants.

Some people do not like the taste of their tap water. Sometimes this is because of the disinfectant (like chlorine) that helps keep the water safe from germs. Sometimes minerals or other naturally occurring contaminants like sulfur-containing compounds that are not harmful change the taste of the water. Activated carbon filters (the type of filter found in many refrigerators and pitcher filters) can help reduce unpleasant tastes and odors. Reverse osmosis systems can also improve taste and also reduce the levels of common chemicals such as lead. Check the label to ensure that taste and odor (NSF 42) are addressed by the particular filter you are considering. Keep in mind that if you use a chlorine-removing whole-house filter, you might end up increasing the amount of germs that grow in your plumbing.

Most harmful contaminants can’t be seen, smelled, or tasted. Some harmful contaminants, like volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that sometimes contaminate private wells, can give water a bad taste and might smell like gasoline or other chemicals. There are many different kinds of VOCs, and they have different health effects: Some cause cancer, irritate skin, affect mucous membranes, or damage the nervous system, liver, or kidneys. To identify the best filter, special testing may be needed to determine which VOCs are present in your water. It is best to use a point-of-entry filter system (where your water pipe enters your house), or whole-house filter system, for VOCs because they provide safe water for bathing and cleaning, as well as for cooking and drinking. Activated carbon filters can remove some VOCs.

If you have a private well and notice a change in the taste of your water, consider having your well water tested. If you have a public water system and notice a change in the taste of your water, report this to your water company. Just keep in mind that the taste and smell (or lack thereof) of water is not necessarily an indication of how free it is from germs and chemicals.

“I’m worried about lead in my water.”

Lead in drinking water can come from homes with lead service lines that connect the home to the main water line. Homes without lead service lines may still have brass or chrome-plated brass faucets, galvanized iron pipes or other plumbing soldered with lead. Lead can enter drinking water when a chemical reaction occurs in plumbing materials that contain lead. This is known as corrosion – dissolving or wearing away of metal from the pipes and fixtures.

The best way to know your risk of exposure to lead in drinking water is to identify the potential sources of lead in your service line and household plumbing. Because no safe blood level has been identified for young children, all sources of lead exposure for children should be controlled or eliminated. EPA has set the maximum contaminant level goal for lead in drinking water at zero because lead can be harmful to human health even at low exposure levels.

If you are concerned about lead in water or know that your plumbing contains lead, you can take action to reduce the amount of lead in your drinking water and minimize your potential for exposure.

  • You can reduce or eliminate your exposure to lead in tap water by drinking or using only tap water that has been run through a “point-of-use” filter certifiedexternal icon by an independent testing organization to reduce or eliminate lead (NSF/ANSI standard 53 for lead removal and NSF/ANSI standard 42 for particulate removal). If you have a lead service line, use a filter for all water you use for drinking or cooking.
  • You can flush your water to reduce potential exposure to lead from household lead plumbing. This is especially important when the water has been off and sitting in the pipes for more than 6 hours. Before drinking, flush your home’s pipes by running the tap, taking a shower, doing laundry, or doing a load of dishes. The amount of time to run the water will depend on whether your home has a lead service line or not, and the length of the lead service line. external iconDrink or cook only with water that comes out of the tap cold. Water that comes out of the tap warm or hot can have higher levels of lead. Boiling this water will not reduce the amount of lead in your water.

“I have arsenic in my water.”

Arsenic is a heavy metal that is often found in ground water sources, including some private wells and some public water systems that use groundwater. Arsenic is associated with several health problems and can cause cancer.

Arsenic can be present in two forms: trivalent and pentavalent. It is important to know what kind (or “species”) of arsenic is present in your water in order to select the best filter. If your water is treated with chlorine, you are more likely to have pentavalent arsenic, which can be removed by filters labeled with the NSF standard 53 or 58. If your water is not treated, additional treatment (a “pre-oxidation step”) might be needed to convert the trivalent arsenic to pentavalent arsenic before the water is filtered. Distillation is highly effective at removing arsenic, although this technology is not as practical for home use because it uses more energy and takes longer than other water treatments.

More Information

“I have nitrates in my well water.”

Nitrates are chemicals that get into groundwater from contamination with fertilizer, manure, or septic systems, sewage, or erosion of natural deposits. Nitrates make it hard for your red blood cells to carry oxygen. This can be dangerous for infants and some adults. If you get your water from a public water system, nitrate levels are monitored and controlled. If you have a private well, you need to have your well water tested to find out if nitrates are a problem for you. If testing determines your water has high levels of nitrates, you can choose reverse osmosis (NSF 58) or distillation (NSF 62) technology. Boiling and filtration do not remove nitrates.

If your water contains high levels of nitrates, other contaminants might also be present. Contact your local health department for recommendations about testing for other contaminants.

“I have a weakened immune system.”

People who are immunocompromised, or have immune systems weakened by chemotherapy, AIDS, or organ transplants, should consult with their health care provider to determine whether they should consider installing a water treatment system to ensure their water has a low concentration of germs, especially the germ Cryptosporidium. Filters that have the words “reverse osmosis” on the label protect against Cryptosporidium, as do those with an “absolute 1 micron” pore size. You can also look for the standards NSF 53 or NSF 58 on the label.

Cryptosporidium is a special concern for people with compromised immune systems.

Filters designed to remove Crypto (any of the four messages below on a package label indicate that the filter should be able to remove Crypto):

  • Reverse osmosis (with or without NSF testing)
  • Absolute pore size of 1 micron or smaller (with or without NSF testing)
  • Tested and certified by NSF Standard 53 or NSF Standard 58 for cyst removal
  • Tested and certified by NSF Standard 53 or NSF Standard 58 for cyst reduction

Filters labeled only with these words may NOT be designed to remove Crypto:

  • Nominal pore size of 1 micron or smaller
  • One micron filter
  • Effective against Giardia
  • Effective against parasites
  • Carbon filter
  • Water purifier
  • EPA approved Caution: EPA does not approve or test filters
  • EPA registered Caution: EPA does not register filters based on their ability to remove Cryptosporidium
  • Activated carbon
  • Removes chlorine
  • Ultraviolet light
  • Pentiodide resins
  • Water softener
  • Chlorinated

In addition, immunocompromised people should not change water filters themselves, as this may expose them to the contaminants collected by the filter and potentially increase their risk of infection.

Some filters can remove parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia if used properly. However, they may not remove viruses and bacteria. Germs could still be present in your filtered water.

“I’m planning a camping trip and plan to purify water from a stream, lake, or spring to drink.”

There are a range of water treatment options that campers and travelers may consider if they anticipate having access to mainly untreated or poorly treated water sources. Boiling water is the most effective approach to killing all kinds of germs in water. Using an absolute 1-micron filter (1-micron sized holes or smaller) or a filter labeled as certified by NSF Standards 53 or 58 will remove parasites if used properly, but will not remove viruses or all bacteria. Check the label of your filter product.

“I want to use my water for nasal rinsing, such as with a neti pot or as a religious practice.”

If you are making a solution for irrigating, flushing, or rinsing your sinuses (for example, by using a neti pot, sinus rinse bottle, or other irrigation device), or putting water into the nose as part of a religious practice, use safe water to lower your risk of infection with Naegleria fowleri. This tiny ameba causes a rare infection by traveling up the nose to the brain and causing death.

Take at least one of these actions to lower your risk of becoming infected:

  • Boil: Use water that has been previously boiled for 1 minute and left to cool.
    • At elevations above 6,500 feet, boil for 3 minutes.
  • Filter: Use a filter designed to remove some water-loving germs.
  • Buy: Use water with a label specifying that it contains distilled or sterile water.
  • Disinfect: Learn how to disinfect your water to ensure it is safe from Naegleria.

“I have hard water.”

Hard water, or water that contains excessive amounts of minerals like calcium and magnesium, can leave a scaly residue and prevent soaps from lathering. Water softeners can be used to treat this problem. Water softeners use ion exchange technology, so they are technically not filters and do not protect you from germs in the water. Water softeners also remove beneficial minerals from the water.

Cited from: Choosing Home Water Filters & Other Water Treatment Systems


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